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Spatial distribution and vertical profile of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecanes in sediment core from Tokyo Bay, Japan

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in three sediment cores and six surface sediments of Tokyo Bay, Japan. HBCDs were detected for the first time in this region with concentrations ranging from 0.056 to 2.3 ng/g dry wt, implying their widespread contamination, even though their concentrations were lower than ∑PBDEs (di- to nona-BDEs) and BDE-209. Levels of these compounds were higher near to the highly populated industrial area of the bay implicating industrial and human activities as sources of these compounds. ∑PBDEs increased in the sediment layer up to the mid-1990s and decreased afterwards, whereas BDE-209 showed an increasing trend until now, following the usage of different commercial BDE mixtures. HBCDs first appeared in the mid-1970s and increased until today. The annual surficial flux of HBCDs (0.62-2.4 ng/cm2/yr) is equal to ∑PBDEs (0.95-2.6 ng/cm2/yr) but lower than that of BDE-209 (17-58 ng/cm2/yr). © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 Minh N.H., Isobe T., Ueno D., Matsumoto K., Mine M., Kajiwara N., Takahashi S., Tanabe S.
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  Từ khóa : Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD); Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE); Sediment cores; Surficial flux; Temporal trends; Tokyo Bay; Bromine; Contamination; Ethers; Flame retardants; Japan; Paraffins; Surfaces; Sediments; diphenyl ether derivative; hexabromocyclododecane derivative; polybrominated diethyl ether derivative; unclassified drug; concentration (composition); human activity; industrial location; PBDE; pollutant source; sediment core; sediment pollution; spatial distribution; vertical profile; article; concentration response; drug mixture; Japan; sedimentation; spatial autocorrelation analysis; surface property; Environmental Monitoring; Environmental Pollutants; Flame Retardants; Geologic Sediments; Hydrocarbons, Brominated; Isomerism; Japan; Polybrominated Biphenyls; Time Factors; Asia; Eurasia; Far East; Honshu; Japan; Kanto; Tokyo Bay