Spatial distribution and vertical profile of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecanes in sediment core from Tokyo Bay, Japan
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in three sediment cores and six surface sediments of Tokyo Bay, Japan. HBCDs were detected for the first time in this region with concentrations ranging from 0.056 to 2.3 ng/g dry wt, implying their widespread contamination, even though their concentrations were lower than ∑PBDEs (di- to nona-BDEs) and BDE-209. Levels of these compounds were higher near to the highly populated industrial area of the bay implicating industrial and human activities as sources of these compounds. ∑PBDEs increased in the sediment layer up to the mid-1990s and decreased afterwards, whereas BDE-209 showed an increasing trend until now, following the usage of different commercial BDE mixtures. HBCDs first appeared in the mid-1970s and increased until today. The annual surficial flux of HBCDs (0.62-2.4 ng/cm2/yr) is equal to ∑PBDEs (0.95-2.6 ng/cm2/yr) but lower than that of BDE-209 (17-58 ng/cm2/yr). © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.