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Contamination by arsenic and other trace elements in tube-well water and its risk assessment to humans in Hanoi, Vietnam

Concentrations of As and other trace elements and their association were examined in groundwater (n=25) and human hair (n=59) collected at Gia Lam District and Thanh Tri District, suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam, in September 2001. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from <0.10 to 330 μg/l, with about 40% of these exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. Also, 76% and 12% of groundwater samples had higher concentrations of Mn and Ba than WHO drinking water guidelines, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in hair of residents in Gia Lam and Thanh Tri Districts (range 0.088-2.77 μg/g dry wt.) were lower than those in other As-contaminated areas of the world, but were higher than those of people in non-contaminated areas. Concentrations of As and Mn in hair of some individuals from the Gia Lam and Thanh Tri Districts exceeded the level associated with their toxicity and, therefore, a potential health risk of As and Mn is a concern for the people consuming the contaminated water in this area. Cumulative As exposure was estimated to be lower than the threshold levels at the present, which might explain the absence of manifestations of chronic As poisoning and arsenicosis in the residents of Gia Lam and Thanh Tri Districts. To our knowledge, this study revealed for the first time that the residents are exposed not only to As but also Mn and Ba from groundwater in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 Agusa T., Kunito T., Fujihara J., Kubota R., Minh T.B., Kim Trang P.T., Iwata H., Subramanian A., Viet P.H., Tanabe S.
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  Từ khóa : Barium; Groundwater; Manganese; Potable water; Risk assessment; Trace elements; Water wells; Hanoi; Human hair; Vietnam; Arsenic; arsenic; drinking water; ground water; trace element; well water; arsenic; groundwater; pollution exposure; risk assessment; trace element; article; concentration (parameters); dry weight; hair analysis; health hazard; human; human tissue; intoxication; practice guideline; risk assessment; Viet Nam; water contamination; world health organization; Arsenic; Barium; Drinking; Environmental Exposure; Family; Female; Fresh Water; Hair; Humans; Iron; Male; Manganese; Rain; Risk Assessment; Suburban Health; Trace Elements; Vietnam; Water Pollutants, Chemical; Water Supply