Genetic variation of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. (Avicenniaceae) in Vietnam revealed by microsatellite and AFLP markers
Genetic variation of Avicennia marina in the costal area of Vietnam was examined using microsatellite and AFLP markers. By using five microsatellite loci a total of 21 alleles were detected. The average number of alleles per locus per population ranged from 1.667 to 3.000. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.180 to 0.263, with an average of 0.210 indicating relatively low level of genetic variation comparing to the previous studies on A. marina in the worldwide range. The expected heterozygosity was larger than the observed heterozygosity leading to positive inbreeding coefficients in all the six populations. Highly significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium were detected in four populations. AFLP analysis revealed a total of 386 loci, of which 232 (60.1%) were polymorphic. In congruent with microsatellite markers relatively low levels of genetic variation were detected at both gene and nucleotide levels (H = 0.086; π = 0.0054). Reduced level of genetic variation was found in the central population, and in the southern populations. Both microsatellite and AFLP markers revealed large genetic differentiation (FST = 0.262 and 0.338, respectively) indicating strong genetic structure among regional populations. Pairwise genetic distance by AFLP showed two populations in the north and the other two in the south are closely related each other.